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简洁明了的高中英语构词法必考点合集 (二)

时间:2019-04-09 15:02:40  
来源:平和英语村  作者:平和英语村

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. 派生法

由一个词加上前缀或后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词叫做派生法。

 

1. 前缀

除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,但不改变单词的词性。

 

1)表示否定意义的前缀

●un- unhappy unfinished undress

●dis- disagree disbelieve

●in- [il-(在字母l前),im- (在字母m,b,p前),ir- (在字母r前)] inaccurate illegal impolite imbalance irregular

●mis- misbehave mislead mistake

●non- nonstop nonsmoker

 

2)表示其他意义的前缀

●en- “使……”enrich enlarge encourage

●inter- “相互”international intercontinental

●re- “再,又,重”rethink retell recycle

●tele- “远程的”telescope telephone telegraph

●auto- “自动的”automatic automobile

●co- “共同”coworker cooperate coexist

●anti- “反对,抵抗”antiwar antifreeze antinuclear

●multi- “多”multistory multicultural multicolor

●bi- “双,二”bicycle bilingual bilateral

●micro- “极小的,微小的”microwave microcomputer

●over- “太多,过分”overwork overdo overestimate

●self- “自己,本身”self-centered self-confident self-control

●under- “在……下面,……下的,不足的”underline, underground, underestimate, underrate

 

2. 后缀

1)形容词后缀

●-able “可……的,具有……的”acceptable drinkable knowledgeable reasonable

●-al “与……有关的”physical, magical, political

●-an “属于某地方的人”American African

●-ern “方向”southern, northern, eastern

●-ful/ less “(没)有……的”helpful, useful, homeless, hopeless

●-ish “如……的;有……特征的”foolish childish selfish

●-ive “有……倾向的”active attractive expensive

●-en “由……制成的”golden wooden woolen

●-ous “有(性质)的”famous, dangerous, poisonous

●-ly “有……性质的”friendly yearly daily

●-y “构成形容词”noisy dusty cloudy

 

2)名词后缀

●-er / or “表人或用具” farmer, baker, visitor, professor, cooker, container

●-ese “某国(人)的”Chinese, Japanese

●-ian “某国、某地人;精通……的人”musician, Asian, Russian, technician

●-ist “某种主义或职业者”physicist, scientist, communist,socialist

●-ess “表女性,雌性”hostess, actress, princess

●-ment “行为或其状态”government, movement, achievement

●-ness “性质,状态”illness, sadness, carelessness

●-tion “动作,过程,结果”invention, organization, translation

●-ance/ ence “抽象;行为、性质、状态”importance, appearance, absence, existence

●-th “性质、情况” depth, warmth, truth

●-ful “(满的)量”handful, spoonful, mouthful

●-(a)bility “抽象、性质、状态”possibility, disability, reliability

●-al “过程、状态”survival, arrival, approval

●-y “性质、情况”modesty, delivery, honesty

●-dom “处于……状态;性质”freedom, boredom

●-age “状态,行为,身份及其结果”courage, storage, marriage

 

3)动词后缀

●-fy / ify “使得;变得” simplify, beautify, purify

●-en “使成为;变得” shorten, deepen, sadden

●-ize “使成为” apologize, realize, specialize

 

4)副词后缀

●-ly “方式,程度” freely, truly, angrily

●-ward(s) “向……” towards, forward, upwards

 

5)数词后缀

●-teen “十几” fourteen, eighteen, thirteen

●-ty “整十位数” forty, fifty, sixty

●-th “序数词” twelfth, twentieth

 


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