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英语语法: 什么是独立主格

时间:2019-10-23 13:22:27  来源:平和英语村  作者:Myron Chen

 

独立结构 

 

 

       

       独立主格,首先它是一个“格”,而不是一个“句子”,在英语中任何一个句子都要有主谓结构,而在这个结构中,没有真正的主语和谓语动词,但又在逻辑上构成主谓或主表关系。

 

       独立主格结构不是主谓完整的简单句,而只是一个短语

 

       独立主格结构由两部分组成,前一部分是名词,或者代词,后一部分是非谓语动词(现在分词,过去分词)。前后两部分具有逻辑主谓关系。独立主格结构本身不是一个句子,在句中作状语,表时间,条件,原因,伴随及状态等,相当于并列句或者状语从句。我们现在就来看看下面这几个例子。

 

 

1) 表示时间

 

The meeting being over, all of us went home.

 

开完会后我们都回家了。

 

the meeting being over相当于when the meeting was over

 

Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea.

 

她干完了活,坐下来喝茶。

 

her work done相当于when her work was done

 

 

2) 表示条件

 

The condition being favorable, he may succeed.

 

若条件有利,他或许能成功。

 

the condition being favorable相当于If the condition is favorable

 

 

3) 表示原因

 

There being no taxis, we had to walk.

 

没有出租车,我们只好步行。

 

There being no taxis相当于Since there was no taxis,

 

 

He wrapped her up with great care, the night being dark and frosty.

 

夜又黑又冷,所以他把她裹得严严实实的。

 

the night being dark and frosty相当于as the night was dark and frosty

 

 

4) 表示伴随情况

 

Almost all metals are good conductors, silver being the best of all.

 

几乎所有的金属都是良导体,而银则是最好的导体。

 

(=Almost all metals are good conductors, and silver is the best of all.)

 

 

5) 表示补充说明

 

We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two.

 

我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。

 

 

独立主格有以下常见的七个类型:

 

 

类型 1:名词(代词)+现在分词

 

We shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting.

 

明天假设天气好,我们就进行比赛。

 

The monitor being ill, we’d better put the meeting off.

 

班长病了,我们最好还是延期开会吧。

 

 

类型 2:名词(代词)+过去分词

 

The job finished, we went home.

 

工作结束后我们就回家了。

 

The last bus gone, we had to walk home.

 

最后一班公车已经走了,我们必须走路回家。

 

More time given, we should have done the job much better.

 

如果给我们更多的时间,我们会把工作做得更好。

 

 

类型 3:名词(代词)+不定式

 

Nobody to come tomorrow, we will have to put off the meeting till next week.

 

如果明天没有人来,我们将把会议推迟到下周。

 

So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed.

 

有如此多的人来帮助他,他一定会成功的。

 

 

类型4:名词(代词)+介词短语

 

The soldiers dashed in, rifle in hand.

 

士兵们端着枪冲了进来。

 

A girl came in, book in hand.

 

一个少女进来了,手里拿着书。

 

He was waiting, his eyes on her back.

 

他在等着,眼睛望着她的背影。

 

 

类型5:名词(代词)+形容词或副词

 

He sat in the front row, his mouth half open.

 

他坐在前排,嘴半开着。

 

She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter.

 

她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低了下来,拿好钢笔,准备开始写一封长信。

 

 

类型6:There being +名词(代词)

 

There being nothing else to do, we went home.

 

没有别的事可做,我们就回家了。

 

There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed.

 

没有再要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。

 

 

类型7:It being +名词(代词)

 

It being Christmas, the government offices were closed.

 

由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。

 

It being a holiday, all the shops were shut.

 

由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。

 

 

 

  #英语语法 #什么是独立主格 #中级英语 #平和英语 #全日制课程

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